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Volume 20 No. 42

In Depth

Thirty-five months ago, NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell set a heady goal for team owners: triple the league’s then nearly $8.5 billion of revenue during the next 18 years. It was an aggressive pitch, requiring $917 million of new revenue annually.

Now, three years later, despite the league’s success and record-breaking popularity, the NFL is off the pace necessary to reach the target, with about $1 billion of revenue added since then.

The league stands by the $25-billion-by-2027 goal, though with $9.5 billion of revenue in 2012, sources said, the NFL now must average more than $1 billion annually of new revenue over the next 15 years.

“The financial landscape has been a pretty tough one, it has affected most companies in America. The [2011] CBA [process] set us back,” said Eric Grubman, executive vice president of NFL ventures and business operations. “I think
we are doing OK … our fans are still having a tough time [financially].”

The revenue target, introduced during the 2010 annual owners meeting in Orlando, did not come from projecting existing NFL business out to 2027. Instead, Grubman explained, the league intended the figure to convey what scale the NFL needed in order to compete as a global entertainment brand. And compete not just against other sports leagues, such as the English Premier League, but consumer product companies such as Procter & Gamble, Walt Disney and Apple.

“It is aggressive,” Grubman admitted of the $25 billion aspiration, “and I see no reason to change that goal. That is keeping with the DNA of every club we have. There is no one that sets easy goals in the league and we are not about to.”
Clearly, relying on the old bread-and-butter-sports economics of selling tickets, concessions and parking barely moves the needle in a quasi-recessionary environment. Instead, if the NFL is to enjoy 163 percent growth in the next 15 years, it must get even more money out of media, and create new lines of businesses.

“Traditional areas are very tough to grow,” said Jim Steeg, a former NFL and San Diego Chargers executive. “The vast majority of teams over the last five or seven years have remained fairly flat on that multiple.”

Traditional revenue streams such as ticketing have largely flattened out, so the league will have to look elsewhere for significant growth.
Photo by: AP Images

The NFL is trying to endow game tickets with more value, adding experiences to the price of premium seats, for example. And the league has succeeded in stemming a growing tide of non-sellouts. But no one is fooling anyone into believing that selling tickets and food gets the NFL very far toward $25 billion.

Mining growth in media

One clear engine for revenue growth is the same as for so many of the past increases: media. The NFL already has some built-in advantages. The new TV contracts in 2014 will generate significantly higher rights fees, while the 2011 CBA not only helped owners keep player costs in check, but secured labor peace through 2021, thereby easing any game-interruption concerns for new and existing partners. New NFL Network distribution deals cut late last year with Cablevision and Time Warner Cable already add to the pie.

But factoring in a few billion dollars more annually from the new TV deals and NFL Network subscription fees, the NFL is still only at the halfway point, or a little more, toward its revenue goal.

The league’s deals with Fox, NBC, CBS and ESPN expire in 2021 or 2022, so the next round of renegotiations should contribute toward the 2027 goal. Unless a major event occurs, like player health and safety dulling the popularity of the game, or an economic or military catastrophe, the NFL seems assured of reaping more in rights fees from traditional outlets on broadcast and cable TV. And the league could always bid out the NFL Network’s package of 13 games, though to do so it would have to weigh what it loses in subscription fees and ad sales, against what might be gained in rights fees. A 13-game Thursday and Saturday package is not sacrosanct, Grubman commented; it could always get bid out to another channel.

The league will need more than that, however, to arrive at the scale Goodell identified as necessary to compete globally against other major entertainment companies.

Clearly in the NFL’s favor is its position as the top-rated entertainment program in a fragmenting media universe. Programmers pay top dollar for shows that capture viewers and are immune from channel surfing and recording devices that skip through ads. Perhaps more than any property on TV, the NFL matches these criteria.

The question then is, seeing as the league likely only gets one more bite at a new broadcast and cable package before 2027, can the NFL begin to capitalize and collect fees for showing its games outside the current platforms?

Commissioner Roger Goodell waves during a Verizon-sponsored event at this year’s International Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. The league’s deal with Verizon expires in 2014, opening the possibility that the NFL could test the mobile market for selling games.
Photo by: Getty Images
“Some form of subscription will be out there,” said Tom Spock, a former NFL executive, and co-founder of media consultancy Scalar Media Partners. “This may or may not be the last exclusive for DirecTV.”

DirecTV’s out-of-market package, for which it pays $1 billion annually, expires after 2014. The league could proceed in several directions at that juncture: sell the package to cable companies, a la the other leagues; keep it intact as an exclusive; or even allow some form of selling games directly to fans if the network partners allow it.

Figuring out the future of the DirecTV model underscores that the NFL’s biggest revenue opportunity is cashing in on its tremendous TV popularity, but on a much greater level and through different mediums than today.

“We are cracking the code on how to distribute,” Grubman said. Tablets, laptops, smartphones, each could offer subscriptions services.

Grubman used the phrase “NFL Everywhere” to talk about the possibilities, a turn of the phrase “TV Everywhere,” used by cable companies to describe viewing programming on different devices.

In the past, the broadcasters have largely blocked efforts by the NFL to show games outside traditional mediums. The NFL has proved, Grubman argued, that providing content on different devices doesn’t cannibalize network ratings.
NBC’s Sunday night games are streamed on, for example, and those games are often the highest-rated TV show of the week.

In 2014, the NFL’s deal with Verizon expires, at which point the league can test the mobile market for selling games more widely in that space.

The move to widely sell games and packages on different devices, if it arrives, could also lead to another treasure trove: pressure on Nielsen Media to move away from household TV rating measurements.

“A big potential in revenue will come from a new method and better counting of viewers,” Grubman said. “Our broadcast and cable partners are selling ads based on viewers being counted at home. It undercounts.”

If ESPN and the networks can charge more for ads, then they can afford to pay the NFL even more.

International a question mark

One space that has yet to provide significant revenue is international markets (in fact, during the now defunct NFL Europe days the sector dragged on the league’s bottom line). The league five years ago began playing regular-season games in London, and the city hosts two regular-season games for the first time during the 2013 season.

Longtime observers, however, worry that the league is simply continuing its lengthy, futile efforts outside of America. There are no reliable external estimates for NFL revenue overseas, though the league often talks up growth rates in rights fees.

“I scratch my head why the NFL has struggled so much internationally,” said Frank Vuono, who oversaw the NFL’s

The league has attracted enthusiastic crowds to games in London, but is still seeking ways to significantly build its international business.
Photo by: Getty Images
merchandise business in the 1990s and now runs the consulting firm 16W Marketing.

And Scalar’s Spock added, “there have been 35 years of really trying hard to make an impact and it is very slow going. There may be some upside there, but it’s not likely to be a major contributing factor.”

The league will try, and not just in London with live games, but selling TV rights in Asia and trying to establish itself on the world stage.

“Roger [Goodell] has a very big mission, and the NFL has a big plan for global expansion,” said David Moross, chairman of private equity firm Falconhead, which has done business with the NFL. “Distribution outside this country is an opportunity.”

There are other obvious areas for revenue growth. Among them:

Expanding the regular season and the playoffs, which Goodell has so far championed to little success. The players oppose adding games to the regular season, and adding playoff teams has not been well-received in many circles.

Grubman insists these are not revenue ideas, and points to the fact that the league even considered shrinking the season by two preseason games, and keeping the regular season at 16, as evidence. Goodell, Grubman added, is motivated not by revenue when it comes to season structure, but to shrink the unappealing preseason.

A team moving to Los Angeles would create revenue by opening the second-largest market in the country to a team, and presumably subtracting the low revenue market a club relocated from.

There are others with more exotic ideas on how to grow.

The NFL would profit immensely if it embraced sports gambling, Vuono contended, like the English Premier League. That seems highly unlikely in the conservative NFL, which has vociferously opposed expansion of sports gambling outside Las Vegas.

Arlen Kantarian, a former NFL executive and top tennis official, said the NFL should create its own apparel and ticketing company, rather than just collect royalties. “They are powerful enough to consider that down the road,” said Kantarian, who operates through his boutique Kantarian Sports Group.

The NFL could buy another sports league like Major League Soccer, he opined, to run during its offseason.
“They have a lot of legs left,” Kantarian said. “They are probably in the early third quarter of their opportunity to generate revenue.”

Without inside access to the NFL’s books, it’s tough to know exactly how to create a pie chart for the league’s $9.5 billion of revenue in 2012. We do know from the 2011 season that of the year’s nearly $9.4 billion in revenue, $5.5 billion (58.5 percent) came from national money like media, sponsorship and NFL Ventures. That is public because the Green Bay Packers, as the only public NFL team, annually disclose some financial reports. Below is a description of different league business lines and how they are faring.

Ticket sales
Still the bread and butter of most teams’ local business, this revenue has largely been flat for several years for many clubs, if not down. Like other businesses, the NFL has struggled through the financial problems the country has suffered since 2008. While the league has filled most of its stadiums, prices have been restrained, so ticket revenue has been very modest, said the NFL’s Eric Grubman. This area could get a boost with new stadiums in Santa Clara and Minnesota, and would get a big bump if a team relocated from a small market to Los Angeles.

Licensing and merchandise
Photo by: Getty Images

This segment of business is doing very well, according to Grubman, because of the influx of new partners such as Nike, New Era and VF. “Online merchandising is on fire. Our team stores are on fire,” he said.

Sponsorship revenue has not dipped in the last few years, which itself is a major accomplishment in a tough economy. The league just sold the quick-service restaurant category to McDonald’s and there may be some opportunities in the new TV contracts, Grubman said, though he declined to elaborate. There also could be more opportunities to sell coveted space on field, including uniform patches.

New stadiums planned for the Minnesota Vikings (above) and the San Francisco 49ers will bring a boost in league revenue.
Photo by: Minnesota Vikings
Stadium building went through a boom in the late 1990s and through much of the first decade of the 21st century. But when the league’s stadium financing plan expired, labor strife doomed any possibility of a quick successor agreement between the union and league. The 2011 CBA allowed for a new stadium plan, and now new projects will come online in Santa Clara, Calif., and Minnesota, with renovations planned at Green Bay, Pittsburgh, Carolina, Buffalo and Miami.

Venture fund
The league two years ago announced plans for a venture capital fund. However, it is more apt to describe the fund today, which has yet to invest, as a private equity fund. The league has switched focus from early-stage startups to more established businesses in which to invest. That moves it away from the province of the venture capital world and into the private equity stage. The league will not be taking control stakes, however.

The jump in new media money in 2014 is no secret, though it is staggered so the initial years will not see a major jump.

Photo by: Getty Images
How the league handles distribution through alternate platforms, like mobile and tablet, could provide the key for the league reaching its $25 billion revenue goal. NFL Network and RedZone also look to be key in getting the league to the revenue target. Grubman talked about new stats products that the league can sell. Tom Spock, a media consultant and former league executive, agreed: “There are data streams they can monetize in gaming, fantasy.”

The NFL has long been knocked for its failure to export its brand overseas anywhere near to the height of the sport’s popularity back home.

But while it is certainly open for debate whether international markets will deliver the revenue the league hopes, foreign lands may still soon play an important role for America’s top league: a test lab for different forms of media distribution.

“If we find out it really works internationally, that is something we could import back into the United States under the right set of circumstances,” said Eric Grubman, executive vice president of NFL ventures and business operations. “There are more and more markets in which we have laboratories.”

Grubman is particularly enthused about NFL Game Pass, an overseas-only offering for $199 annually that allows consumers to stream games to their mobile devices, tablets, laptops and PCs. Currently there are tens of thousands of subscribers, he said, disclosing for the first time a rough figure from the league for this product’s reach. He sees no reason the figure cannot soon grow to more than 1 million.

U.S. broadcast contract restrictions and the league’s Verizon sponsorship prevent a Game Pass or similar product from being offered stateside. However, it is clearly on the league’s radar, though at the moment just for growing the international marketplace.

“We could do a cousin of Game Pass overseas on YouTube, or Netflix,” Grubman said, adding he was just thinking out loud and not disclosing impending deals.

Several sports have turned to YouTube for international distribution, though the video site’s sports offerings are still limited.

The true test will come with the U.S. broadcasters that pay billions of dollars for their NFL rights. Grubman contends that the league has proved that alternate forms of distribution have not hurt broadcast ratings.

For now, though, overseas experiments will have to stay there.

“Technology is running ahead of the rights issue,” said Tom Spock, a former NFL executive, and co-founder of sports media consultancy Scalar Media Partners.

When the DirecTV deal expires in 2014, however, along with the Verizon partnership, the league could then sell out-of-market games at the least via streaming, if it so chooses that path.

Predicted former league and team executive Jim Steeg: “That day is coming.”

With the Super Bowl returning to New Orleans, we asked sports executives to share their favorite memories from previous Super Bowls in the Crescent City. Here’s what they had to say:

“Super Bowl XX, Jan. 26, 1986. Bears vs. Patriots: Don Garber [MLS commissioner] and I both worked at the NFL then

Photo by: Getty Images
and Don did a great singing and dancing re-creation of the Super Bowl shuffle that he performed for staff on a number of occasions that weekend.”
— Rick Dudley
CEO and president, Octagon Worldwide

“Having spent months after Katrina helping the Saints and the city of New Orleans on behalf of the NFL, I absolutely can’t wait to attend the Super Bowl this year in this great city and historic venue. It’s my favorite Super Bowl city (until next year). My best memories of the Super Bowl here go back to my days at NFL Properties, when the Chicago Bears played the Patriots at the end of ’85. The Bears fans were crazy and the city was electric. It was my first Super Bowl, and having been to every one since, it is still a favorite. Only the wins by my beloved Giants, attended with my entire family, have topped it.”
— Frank Vuono
Partner, 16W Marketing

“I’m not a foodie, but I will never, ever forget the food! Whether it was the seven-course dinner at Emeril’s restaurant with delicious wine pairings, or the late-night beignets after a night out on the French Quarter. And, of course, no New Orleans trip is complete without a few of its famous Pat O’Brien hurricanes. As for the football, it speaks for itself and is the best our country has to offer.”
— Michael Lynch
Consultant and former Visa sports marketing executive

Photo by: Getty Images
“My son Collin and I are huge Patriots fans and in spite of knowing the Pats had virtually no chance of getting to the Super Bowl in 2002, he chose that trip as his college graduation present. We made all of the reservations in the summer of 2001 and, as expected, we watched the Patriots get off to a 1-3 start. But on Feb. 3, 2002, we were in the Superdome watching Adam Vinatieri’s 48-yard field goal float over the crossbar to win the Patriots’ first ever Super Bowl. An indescribable moment!”
— Randy Vataha
President, Game Plan

“The first Super Bowl I ever attended was Super Bowl XXXI in New

Photo by: Getty Images
Orleans in 1997. New Orleans remains my favorite Super Bowl city and one of my favorite places in the U.S. Memories of a twenty-something in New Orleans can be hazy, but I recall great hospitality events (including a memorable party at the House of Blues), cheeseheads everywhere, the arrival of Fox on the Super Bowl scene and a great night for Desmond Howard.”
— Doug Perlman
CEO, Sports Media Advisors

Photo by: Getty Images
“In the months following 9/11, the United States population was faced with many concerns. The personal concerns over getting on airplanes and attending large events were among the foremost. The NFL faced so many issues as Super Bowl XXXVI approached. First the game was moved back a week as a result of the games of 9/16 being canceled, and then ensuring the safest environment possible … became the primary focus. So many policies and procedures were put in place in the 120 days prior to game day that are now industry standards. … In the end, Super Bowl XXXVI jump-started the country back to its feet. The success of the game showed the influence that the NFL can have. This Super Bowl changed forever how people would attend events.”
— Jim Steeg
Sports consultant and former NFL executive who produced 26 Super Bowls