SBJ/Aug. 25-31, 2014/In Depth

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  • Grand plan for tennis

    The current overhaul of the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center will help propel U.S. Open revenue to roughly $320 million when the work is fully complete in 2018, up from $260 million for this year’s event, tennis sources said.

    While $60 million more is substantial, unlike typical sports construction the $500 million National Tennis Center redevelopment is not projected to greatly pad the bottom line. A decent share of the modest 23 percent rise in projected revenue over the next four years would derive from factors independent of the renovation, like rising ticket prices and television fees.

    This rendering shows the roof on Arthur Ashe Stadium that will highlight the project, but there’s much more in store.
    Photo by: Rosetti / USTA

    “A lot of this is being done because we need to upgrade the facility without regard to how much more money it brings in,” said Gordon Smith, executive director of the U.S. Tennis Association, the owner and operator of the U.S. Open, which commences today. “We are doing this to have the best tennis facility in the world.

    “Let me put it this way,” he added, pressed further about the financial return, “it’s a long payback.” Smith declined to offer precise figures on revenue, or the return on investment.

    The USTA’s return is hemmed in from at least three sides. First, the organization borrowed $450 million (the remainder came from reserves), with annual interest costs approaching $30 million. The longest maturing debt is 25 years.

    Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, the group committed, in its words, “not to finance the construction on the backs of our fans.” So no dramatic price increases, or seat licenses, a common measure in sports to afford expensive new venues, are in the works.

    And even as the USTA plans to demolish in 2016 its decrepit No. 2 stadium, Louis Armstrong Stadium, and build anew, it promised New York City not to sell venue naming rights. Instead the name of the jazz musician, who resided near the tennis site but has no ostensible connection to the sport, is so sacrosanct to the USTA that Danny Zausner, the National Tennis Center managing director, is on the board of directors of the Louis Armstrong House Museum.

    Low-margin renovation

    “This is unusual, from a project standpoint; from a business standpoint, it is very unusual,” said Mitchell Ziets, a sports finance consultant, of the Open’s expected modest revenue growth. “Usually you have a team move into a new facility and get a huge revenue uptick.”

    That occurred for the USTA in 1997, when the group opened Arthur Ashe Stadium at the National Tennis Center, home to the U.S. Open since 1978. The USTA controls the lease to the National Tennis Center, which New York owns.

    With the new Arthur Ashe, the Open in the 2000s quickly became one of the top financial organizations in sports, with revenue approaching $200 million by the end of the decade, and a profit more than half that amount. Tickets, sponsorships and TV income soared.

    And the money train, much like the nearby Long Island Railroad and subways, rumbled on. The two-week Open is on par revenue-wise to a middle-of-the-pack NFL team, with the tournament’s nine-figure annual income making it likely the most profitable sports entity in the United States. (The proceeds are invested in the nonprofit USTA’s mission to grow the sport of tennis in this country.)

    So why even renovate if the returns are meager and the event is already financially robust? Any financial planner advises that low rate of returns don’t justify large investments and debt loads.

    Several factors forced the redevelopment, which includes a roof over Ashe; the new Armstrong; a new No. 3 court; and the construction of a wide pedestrian thoroughfare to accommodate the extra 100,000 fans the Open expects (see illustration).

    Rain plagued the Open in recent years, bringing the call for a roof over Ashe to a fevered pitch. That call came as two other Grand Slams, Wimbledon and the Australian Open, erected roofs over their main courts.

    Those events, and others in tennis, were upgrading while the Open seemed to stand still. Meanwhile, within New York City, sports facility development exploded, making the U.S. Open, once the premier sports hospitality destination in the Big Apple, just part of the crowd.

    “We are competing for New York dollars against some premier sporting construction,” said Chris Widmaier, USTA managing director of corporate communications. “And yet unlike the Yankees or the Nets or the Giants, we are competing for international money because 15 percent to 20 percent of our patrons are coming from overseas, and they are used to what happens at the other Slams and around the world.”

    There were other factors, too. Built in 1964, Armstrong, the main court before Ashe, is in such poor shape that the escalating maintenance costs will soon exceed the cost of just tearing the stadium down and building again.

    The sports consultant, Ziets, said he has seen a handful of cases like this where buildings were so outdated, owners were content with low profit margins on a new venue. But they are not the norm, he said.

    Technology, centralized replay

    The project will allow sponsors to reimagine activation plans. Here fans enjoy an American Express experience at last year’s event.
    Photo by: Getty Images

    The USTA also wants to rewire the tennis center. Currently, five of the 17 courts are equipped for TV, and seven are wired for instant replay. When the renovation is completed, while all 17 won’t be wired, they’ll have the conduits ready underground to accept further investment in TV, digital and replay.

    “Our goal, not to sound too grandiose, is every ball that bounces you will be able to see,” Widmaier said.

    ESPN, which next year is broadcasting the entire tournament (Tennis Channel retains some inventory) has communicated to the USTA, Smith said, that it wishes to have a digital signal on every court. That would mean no matter the action occurring, a junior, wheelchair or regular match, it would get streamed.

    And it’s not just streaming and TV; the USTA wants instant replay on every court, Smith said. It is somewhat embarrassing for the Open that the BNP Paribas Open, a lesser tournament in California, has instant replay on all of its courts (funded by billionaire owner Larry Ellison).

    To minimize that investment, the USTA is considering centralizing the replay reviews. As it stands now, the company that provides the technology, Hawkeye, outfits the seven courts, and each one needs three to four employees to work the technology. When a player challenges, they quickly go to work, and the result is shown on a video board.

    Under centralized replay, just one replay command center would handle all challenges. Fans would still get to see the animated replay on video boards.

    Why the math works

    Most teams and leagues would blanch at the low return the USTA is getting on the redevelopment project. During labor strife in 2011, the NFL was ready to shut down the sport over what it claimed were low team returns.

    The USTA, though, has luxuries that other sporting events do not have. It already has a huge profit, and the USTA itself boasted $255 million of assets at the end of 2012, according to its most recently available tax return.

    The USTA is also a not-for-profit whose mission is to grow the game of tennis, not necessarily to squeeze every last cent out of capital spending.

    And unlike sports teams, the USTA’s labor costs are low. The organization will pay $38.3 million in prize money this year, or 14 percent of the $260 million in revenue. While a higher percent than in past years, it is far beneath what team sports pay players, which typically is in the 40 percent to 50 range.

    The Open has a goal of $50 million of prize money by 2017. That would bump the percent for the player by only a few points.

    “We are satisfied with the current financial terms of our Grand Slam prize money situation,” Justin Gimelstob, an ATP player representative on the board of directors, wrote in an email. “We have understandings in place for the next few years.”

    While the Open will see low margins from the renovation, there is revenue upside to the new facility, not the least of which are the 100,000 extra fans the event believes it can handle. This year the tournament is on pace to again top 700,000 tickets. If all goes as planned, it will top 800,000 in attendance by 2018. A new, wider walkway and increased seating in Armstrong will help accommodate the extra visitors.

    “We still have to actually sell the tickets,” Zausner said.

    The average ticket price this year is $150, so tabulated across 100,000, that is $15 million, and before food and beverage spending. However, the figure is likely lower because the average includes finals weekend, which distorts the ticket price higher. Most of the 100,000 fans would come in during the first eight days, well before the finals.

    The new thoroughfare will be 40 feet wide and have modern sponsor activation areas, which, Smith said, should let the USTA reimagine the sponsor experience. What that means is not clear, though the USTA expects more dollars from the category after the renovation. Currently, a short, 7-foot-wide walkway squeezes between side courts, with nearby sponsor booths decidedly unimpressive.

    For the USTA, Smith concluded, the issue is not revenue, it is maintaining what he boldly calls the globe’s greatest tennis event.

    “We are the biggest and best tennis tournament in the world, and we have to have the best tennis facility in the world,” he proclaimed. “And if it costs us money to do it right, and not necessarily give us a gigantic return, then we are going to do it, because we have to maintain that presence.”

    Click the images for a larger view.

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  • Staying on schedule


    Three new practice courts and three competition courts, with bleacher seating for 1,300 fans sandwiched between

    New competition and practice courts opening this year feature improved seating for spectators.
    Photo by: USTA
    them, are ready for this year’s U.S. Open. It is the first time the practice courts have had a significant amount of seating. Fans can switch easily between practice and competition, an area the U.S. Tennis Association expects to quickly become a hot spot on the grounds. New video boards are also up atop Arthur Ashe Stadium.

    Ongoing work provides the first visible evidence of the long-awaited roof over Arthur Ashe Stadium. Six out of eight cement cappings (looking like enormous flower pots with no bottom) that will circle the stadium are in place.
    The pillars to hold up the roof will slide into the caps. One cement capping has taken out the outdoor seating area for Mojitos, an exclusive restaurant on the grounds. Underneath the caps, a labyrinth of wire and steel cables will be filled with cement to hold the pillars in place.

    For lovers of the current National Tennis Center, lap up this year’s tournament; next annum’s event will look very different.


    Crews are building the bases that will support the roof at Arthur Ashe Stadium.
    Photo by: USTA
    Pillars will ring Arthur Ashe Stadium, with supporting structures in place, but no roof yet. However, to accommodate the growing covering, the current lights atop the stadium will come down, and temporary lights will be built on a catwalk that will ring the upper tier of the venue.

    Construction on a new 8,000-seat Grandstand court (the No. 3 court) will be underway in the southwestern corner of the grounds, the opposite of the court’s current northeastern location.

    After the 2015 event, the south perimeter will be extended slightly into the adjacent park. The courts that sit up against the south side will move farther south then. This will allow the walkway on the northern edge of these courts to be expanded from 7 to 40 feet, creating a new thoroughfare for fans.


    Two decades after Arthur Ashe Stadium opened, it will have a roof, which of course likely means rain will stop
    The new Grandstand court will be ready in time for the 2016 event and will have seating for 8,000 spectators.
    Photo by: Rosetti / USTA
    for several years. The cost for the roof is estimated to top $100 million.

    The new Grandstand court will be completed and will be in use. The old Grandstand court will remain standing but will not be in use.

    The new walkway connecting Court 17 to the Grandstand court will be finished. The 40-foot-wide walkway is designed to open up the grounds and reduce crowding.

    Between the 2016 and 2017 events

    Two fan favorites will be torn down: Louis Armstrong Stadium and the connected Grandstand court. Louis Armstrong Stadium, built in 1964, was the main court before Arthur Ashe Stadium and remains popular for the seats’ proximity to the players.


    The old Grandstand court will be gone, as will be the old Louis Armstrong Stadium. The new Louis Armstrong Stadium will not yet be complete. The lower bowl and court will be finished, and temporary seating also will be available. The exact number of seats, though, is still not determined.


    The entire project will be complete. The new 15,000-seat Louis Armstrong Stadium will open for business. It will not have a roof (despite circulated renderings showing a roof on the new stadium), though the USTA is describing it as roof ready. That means if the group later chooses to install a roof, the cost and task will be far less onerous than it was to build the one over Arthur Ashe Stadium.

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  • CBS prepares to bid farewell to U.S. Open

    CBS Sports will produce this year’s U.S. Open the same way it has produced the tennis tournament for the past 46 years.

    But this year marks CBS’s final one with the tournament, as ESPN swooped in to pick up all of the tournament’s rights in an 11-year deal worth $825 million. ESPN, which has held the U.S. Open’s cable package since 2009, will telecast the entire tournament starting next year.

    The network has been a part of the event for nearly five decades.
    Photo by: CBS
    If CBS executives are melancholy about ending the network’s 46-year relationship with the event, they aren’t showing it.

    “We’re going to use all the resources that we have used in the past,” said CBS Sports Chairman Sean McManus.
    “There’s going to be some sadness on Monday night when the final is over. But we will move on and ESPN will do a great job covering the event.”

    CBS’s business-as-usual approach can be seen on the business side, where ad inventory around the tournament is 90 percent sold, which is pacing similar to the past several years, CBS executives said.

    The network’s approach also will come through on-screen, as McManus said CBS would not cut back on coverage during this lame duck year. “We’re approaching it the same way that we cover any sporting event,” McManus said.

    Still, CBS will have some programming that gives a nod to its long relationship with the event. Bill Macatee will
    host “CBS Salutes the U.S. Open” during the tournament’s first weekend, highlighting the history of the event. CBS also has produced a series of vignettes that it will run throughout the U.S. Open, with topics ranging from Arthur Ashe winning in 1968 to sisters Venus and Serena Williams competing in the first women’s prime-time final in 2001. Longtime play-by-play announcer Dick Enberg will appear as a guest during the network’s coverage, as well.

    CBS Sports’ reputation is marked by long-term partnerships. It started carrying the NFL in 1956, the Masters in 1956 and the U.S. Open in 1968. Because of those long-standing relationships, it was a shock to see CBS lose the rights to ESPN, in a deal the U.S. Tennis Association struck in May 2013. ESPN outbid CBS for the rights, agreeing to pay $75 million per year.
    2013 Nadal-Djokovic^ 2.3 S. Williams-Azarenka* 4.0
    2012 Murray-Djokovic^ 2.4 S. Williams-Azarenka* 3.4
    2011 Djokovic-Nadal^ 2.3 Stosur-S. Williams* 3.3
    2010 Nadal-Djokovic^ 1.8 Clijsters-Zvonareva 1.7
    2009 Del Potro-Federer^ 2.4 Clijsters-Wozniacki^^ 1.1
    2008 Federer-Murray^ 1.7 S. Williams-Jankovic* 3.3
    2007 Federer-Djokovic 3.7 Henin-Kuznetsova 2.1
    2006 Federer-Roddick 4.1 Sharapova-Henin 2.4
    2005 Federer-Agassi 4.8 Clijsters-Pierce 2.7
    2004 Federer-Hewitt 2.5 Kuznetsova-Dementieva 2.2
    2003 Roddick-Ferrero 3.5 Henin-Clijsters 2.5
    2002 Sampras-Agassi 6.2 S. Williams-V. Williams 5.2
    2001 Hewitt-Sampras 5.3 V. Williams-S. Williams 6.8
    2000 Safin-Sampras 4.2 V. Williams-Davenport 5.8
    1999 Agassi-Martin 6.3 S. Williams-Hingis 6.3
    1998 Rafter-Philippoussis 2.7 Davenport-Hingis 3.1
    1997 Rafter-Rusedski 4.0 Hingis-V. Williams 3.3
    1996 Sampras-Chang 6.1 Graf-Seles 3.2
    * Held on a Sunday ^ Held on a Monday ^^ Match aired on ESPN2 on a Sunday night
    Note: Rating listed is U.S. rating.
    Source: SportsBusiness Daily research

    CBS is stepping away at a time when TV ratings around the tournament have hit all-time lows. The 2012 tournament averaged 2 million viewers, which is the lowest for the U.S. Open. News last week that one of the sport’s biggest draws, Rafael Nadal, pulled out of this year’s tournament because of an injured wrist, casts doubt that the U.S. Open can stem that viewership decline.

    Still, CBS pushed for changes that have made the tournament better for television, such as moving the women’s final to prime time on Saturday and the men’s final to Monday night.

    “We put the women’s final in prime time, and I’m proud that it has been successful for a number of years,” McManus said. “Our presentation and promotion has been first rate. It’s a great event that will continue to do extremely well in the future. Together with the USTA and, in latter years with ESPN, we have grown the event.”

    After more than four decades together, CBS still plans to be involved with the U.S. Open next year — even if it is not the main rights holder.

    “I don’t look backward; I look forward,” McManus said. “I love the event. We’re still going to have a major hospitality presence at the U.S. Open. I will still go to the event, and I will still entertain clients at the event. But it will be on ESPN.”

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