SBJ/January 9 - 15, 2006/SBJ In Depth

A time line of the last century: The NCAA at 100

The college football season produces 18 deaths and 149 serious injuries, leading those in higher education to question the game’s place on their campuses.

In October, President Theodore Roosevelt calls representatives of Harvard, Yale and Princeton to the White House to discuss football’s future. Roosevelt is clear: Reform the game or it will be outlawed, perhaps even by an executive order of the president himself.

President Theodore Roosevelt called schools
together to discuss football’s future.

Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States born with 35 institutions.

Association renames itself the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

Many schools, citing falling enrollment, suspend varsity athletics after Congress declares war on Germany.

NCAA has 170 institutions and is directly involved in 11 sports.

First NCAA national championships held, the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships.

First televised college football game — between Fordham University and Waynesburg College — broadcast on what is now WNBC in New York.

A television camera covers the 1939 football
game between Fordham and Waynesburg.

Sanity Code established based on five principles: amateurism, institutional control and responsibility, sound academic standards, financial aid and recruiting.

Walter Byers becomes the first executive director of the NCAA. He would serve until 1987.

Thirty-two basketball players from seven schools are arrested. Members of the City College of New York men’s basketball team admit to accepting money from gamblers. Two of the players serve brief jail terms. Kentucky’s basketball program is suspended for the 1952-53 season. Other schools involved are Long Island, Manhattan, Bradley, New York and Toledo.

NBC buys limited live television rights for football for $1.14 million.

A total of 121 institutions enroll in the first NCAA Intercollegiate Athletic Group Insurance program that provides catastrophic-injury medical coverage for student athletes.

Special Committee on Basketball Television reports that televising college basketball games does not adversely affect attendance.

Texas Western University, the first school with an all-African-American starting lineup, upsets Kentucky’s all-white team for the NCAA men’s basketball championship.

President Dwight Eisenhower wins the first Theodore Roosevelt Award, given to an individual “for whom competitive athletics in college and attention to physical well-being thereafter have been important factors in a distinguished career of national significance and achievement.” The award is still given annually.

Committee formed to study the feasibility of establishing and supervising women’s intercollegiate athletics.

Freshmen become eligible for all NCAA championships except football and basketball.

The Al McGuire-coached Marquette Warriors decline an NCAA tournament bid because of the region they were to be placed in. The school goes on to win the NIT, and the NCAA then makes it mandatory for schools that receive a bid to its tournament to accept.

The Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women is established, separate from the NCAA, with 280 member institutions to oversee women’s intercollegiate athletics.

Congress passes Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The law requires educational institutions to maintain policies, practices and programs that do not discriminate against anyone based on sex. Under the law, men and women are expected to receive fair and equal treatment in all arenas of public schooling recruitment, admissions, educational programs and activities, course offerings and access, counseling, financial aid, employment assistance, facilities and housing, health and insurance benefits, marital and parental status, scholarships, sexual harassment and athletics.

NCAA’s new headquarters building opens in Mission, Kan.

In a special convention of the 570 NCAA member schools, the legislative and competitive structures are reorganized, creating Divisions I, II and III.

Congress denies a proposed exemption of revenue-producing sports from Title IX.

NCAA rejects a proposal to distribute football television revenue equally to all football-playing members.

Michigan State’s Jay Vincent and Earvin Johnson
apply pressure to Indiana State’s Larry Bird in
the 1979 championship game.

Lucy Harris from Delta State University awarded the first Honda-Broderick Cup, honoring the top female athlete in college sports.

College Football Association formed as a way for top football powers to gain a more effective voice within the NCAA. The Big Ten and Pacific-10 Conferences never join the association. The organization would become instrumental in increasing media revenue for its members.

Home Box Office purchases cable television rights for the 1977 College World Series Championship game. Terms are not disclosed.

The NCAA enters a four-year, $18 million television contract for football. The agreement with ABC covers the 1978-81 seasons.

Football split into divisions I-A and I-AA.

The NCAA and ABC reach out-of-court settlement with Warner Cable, permitting Warner to cablecast five Ohio State University football games into Columbus, Ohio, in 1978 and 1979 on an experimental basis.

Men’s national championship game between Michigan State and Indiana Statebecomes the highest-rated college basketball game of all time with a 24.1 rating, a record that still stands.

AIAW has 41 national championships for women in 19 sports and signs a four-year television contract with NBC.

Louisiana Tech’s Ann Pendergrass celebrates
the NCAA’s first women’s basketball title.

NCAA Council expands, allocates four slots to women and creates committees to conduct women’s championships.

First NCAA women’s championships — field hockey — are held.

NCAA passes Proposition 48, which says Division I student athletes must have a minimum SAT score of 700, or an ACT score of 17, and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in at least 11 courses in core classes.

First Division I women’s basketball tournament is held in March, which weakens the AIAW.

AIAW folds in October after losing antitrust lawsuit against the NCAA.

U.S. Supreme Court weakens Title IX in Grove City College v. Bell. The ruling states that Title IX covers only programs directly receiving federal funds. Other programs, including athletics, which do not receive federal funds, are free to discriminate on the basis of gender.

Richard Schultz (1987-1993) becomes the second executive director of the NCAA.

Congress passes the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which effectively overturns the Grove City ruling, directing that Title IX applies to all operations of a recipient of federal funds and thereby restoring the Office of Civil Rights’ jurisdiction over athletics programs.

The U.S. Supreme Court rules in December that NCAA rules do not become state rules just because they are applied to a state school, and thus there was no breach of due process by the University of Nevada-Las Vegas in suspending Jerry Tarkanian as basketball coach. The dispute was resolved 10 years later when the NCAA paid the coach $2.5 million. By then Tarkanian was the head coach at Fresno State.

The Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics is formed in response to more than a decade of highly visible scandals in college sports. The commission will recommend a reform agenda that emphasizes academic values in an era of perceived commercialization of college sports.

New NCAA headquarters building opens in Overland Park, Kan.

The University of Notre Dame breaks ranks with the CFA and sells rights for its regular-season home football games to NBC. The $38 million rights fee covers five years beginning with the 1991 season. The most recent contract extension runs through the 2010 season.

Sara Lee Corp. pledges a minimum of $6 million to promote women’s intercollegiate athletics, including the Woman of the Year award.

NCAA passes new television revenue-distribution plan.

Judith M. Sweet, athletics director at the University of California, San Diego, is elected president of the NCAA, the only woman to hold the position.

Mary Beth Riley of Canisius College honored as the first NCAA Woman of the Year.

Schultz resigns as NCAA executive director after an independent fact-finder said Schultz knew of improper loans to student-athletes while he was AD at the University of Virginia (1981-87).

Cedric W. Dempsey (1994-2002) becomes the third executive director of the NCAA. Dempsey had been athletics director at the University of Arizona.

NCAA launches CHAMPS/Life Skills, which stands for Challenging Athletes’ Minds for Personal Success, to help student-athletes with a variety of support services.

Coaches for men’s nonrevenue sports appeal to Congress for relief from Title IX regulations.

The Bowl Alliance replaces the Bowl Coalition, and comprises three bowl committees (Fiesta, Orange and Sugar) and the champions of the ACC, Big East, the newly formed Big 12, SEC and Notre Dame.

NCAA passes Proposition 16 requiring student-athletes to have a 2.0 GPA in 13 approved academic core courses and an SAT of 1010 or a combined ACT of 86. Students with lower test scores need higher core course GPAs. The minimum test score for students with a GPA of 2.5 or higher is 820 SAT/68 ACT.

In a landmark Title IX case, a federal judge rules in April that Brown University is in violation of Title IX even though the university offers an extensive women’s intercollegiate athletics program. Judge Raymond Pettine rules that the university has failed to meet any part of Title IX’s three-part compliance test.

NCAA opens a federal relations office in Washington, D.C.

EA Sports releases its NCAA Football series. The “March Madness” series is launched in 1998.

NCAA reaches a five-year, $75 million marketing agreement with Host Communications.

CFA disbands after support from member conferences has all but disappeared.

The Bowl Championship Series is formed, with the champions of the SEC, Big Ten, ACC, Pac-10, Big East, Big 12, SEC and two at-large teams playing in the Rose, Sugar, Fiesta and Orange bowls.

U.S. appeals court rules that Title IX applies directly to the NCAA because the association receives dues money from institutions that receive federal aid.

In 1999 the NCAA opened its current headquarters
(above) in Indianapolis. Previously the NCAA
had maintained its headquarters in
Mission, Kan., and Overland Park, Kan.

U.S. Supreme Court rules that the NCAA is not considered a recipient of federal funds just because it receives dues from member schools that do receive federal money.

A U.S. district court rules that the NCAA’s Proposition 16 has a disparate effect upon African-Americans. Proposition 16 governs the NCAA’s initial eligibility requirements for student athletes. The NCAA goes through an appeals process and makes changes to the policy.

New NCAA headquarters building opens in Indianapolis.

A federal court in Kansas dismisses a lawsuit by Adidas that challenged NCAA limits on the size and number of logos on uniforms.

NCAA signs an 11-year, $6 billion agreement with CBS Sports for the right to televise the Division I men’s basketball championship and other championship events. The deal includes marketing opportunities related to all NCAA championships.

Basketball rules committee approves the use of video replay on last-second shots.

NCAA Hall of Champions exhibit opens in Indianapolis.

New NCAA logo unveiled.

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights issues a statement calling for non-Indian schools, colleges and universities to end the use of American-Indian mascots, nicknames and imagery.

National Association of Basketball Coaches, Student Basketball Council and the Black Coaches Association call for NCAA-sponsored events to be relocated from South Carolina and Georgia because of the states’ display of the Confederate flag. The groups set a two-year moratorium on awarding any new championships or meetings to the states.

Coca-Cola signs on as an NCAA Corporate Champion partner with an 11-year, $500 million dollar sponsorship agreement.

Myles Brand becomes the fourth president of the NCAA.

Kraft Foods signs a new multiyear Corporate Partner sponsorship deal.

Cingular Wireless and General Motors become Corporate Champions. signs a three-year Corporate Partner deal.

College Sports TV launches in April.

In June a federal court in Washington, D.C., dismisses a lawsuit filed by the National Wrestling Coaches Association against the U.S. Department of Education challenging the regulations governing Title IX.

The Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh, president emeritus of the University of Notre Dame, is the first recipient of the NCAA’s Gerald R. Ford Award. The award honors an individual for his advocacy of intercollegiate athletics.

City of Indianapolis announces it will host the men’s Final Four every five years through 2039.

The Hartford Financial Services Group becomes an NCAA Corporate Partner.

UConn and Tennessee battle in the
2004 championship game.

NCAA extends the ban on awarding championships to the state of South Carolina, because of the state’s display of the Confederate flag.

Colorado Court of Appeals upholds a lower court decision not to grant University of Colorado football player Jeremy Bloom a preliminary injunction. Bloom, also a world-class moguls skier, had sued the NCAA for the right to do endorsements and make money to support his skiing endeavors, while still retaining his amateur status so he can play football at Colorado.

A total of l3.8 million households watch the women’s basketball championship in April between UConn and Tennessee, ESPN’s most-viewed basketball game ever.

CBS’s coverage of the men’s basketball championship game between UConn and Georgia Tech earns an 11.0 rating, the lowest for the title game since it began airing in prime time in 1973.

NCAA’s Recruiting Task Force recommends tightened parameters on official visits by recruits including restrictions on traveling, lodging and meals.

Brand appoints a sports wagering task force after a study reveals troubling rates of sports wagering by student-athletes over the past year.

NCAA student-athlete reinstatement staff determines that Bloom rendered himself permanently ineligible for intercollegiate athletics by violating NCAA rules regarding endorsements.

Black Coaches Association issues the first Hiring Report Card. The report card looks at five aspects of the hiring process: the time used to make the decision, the number of communications with the BCA or an NCAA minority interests committee, the percentage of minorities on the search committee, the percentage of minorities among candidates interviewed and adherence to the school’s affirmative action policies.

ESPNU launches. It will include information from, ESPN The Magazine, ESPN Radio, ESPN Mobile (wireless) and ESPN Broadband focusing on college athletics.

State Farm Insurance announces a three-year sponsorship deal at the Corporate Partner level.

EA Sports signs exclusive six-year licensing deal with the Collegiate Licensing Co. to develop, publish and distribute interactive college football video games. NCAA baseball and hockey titles are expected to be released in 2006.

NCAA issues a ban on the use of American-Indian mascots by sports teams during its postseason tournaments at 18 schools, but will not prohibit them otherwise. Nicknames or mascots deemed “hostile or abusive” would not be allowed by teams on their uniforms or other clothing beginning with any NCAA tournament after Feb. 1. The NCAA also plans to ban schools using Indian nicknames from hosting postseason tournaments, and schools with such mascots that have already been selected as tournament sites would be asked to cover any offensive logos. Florida State, Utah and Central Michigan win appeals following the announcement.

NCAA buys the preseason and postseason NIT basketball tournaments for $40.5 million. An additional $16 million is included to end four years of antitrust litigation.

Enterprise Rent-A-Car signs multiyear Corporate Partner deal.

Lowe’s signs three-year Corporate Partner deal.

Source: SportsBusiness Journal research

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